Guide for Authors

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Manuscript preparation guidelines

Legal issues and format:

The number of words in the manuscript should not exceed 8000 words including all components, tables and references list. This is almost similar to 15 A4 pages using 2.5cm borders with 1.5 line spacing and Times New Roman 13 font for English text and Simplified Arabic 14 font for Arabic text. If word number is used, the size of the font or line spacing poses no restriction, as the manuscript will be handled electronically.

All intellectual property laws should be applied when using other sources, whether research, pictures, and/or graphs that are protected by intellectual property laws. In such cases, the approval of the property owner/s are needed before submitting the manuscript to the journal. The journal follows the international rules of ethical problems in scientific research. It also requires that the manuscript should contain minimal plagiarism (for commonly used expressions, formulas, etc.).

Research manuscript components:

The manuscript should be comprised of the following components:

English title, author/s names, author/s work and contact information, English abstract, English keyword, Arabic language title followed by authors and affiliation in Arabic, Arabic abstract, Arabic keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, acknowledgment (if needed), and References. 

Detailed description of manuscript components:


Manuscript title is the first thing viewed by a reader, it is what will control the reader's action; to read or ignore it. However, a reviewer will make a first impression of the work and weather to review od decline to review it. The title should be short but informative in a way that enables the reader to detect the area and main aim of the research. It should not be too general which makes it hard to detect the manuscript's area of interest.

Title should be twelve to fifteen words long.

The main problem of title occurs when it does not match with the contents and issues presented in the manuscript.

Researchers’ information:

This information includes author/s names in normal order (first, middle, and last name) for each researcher). This is followed by indicating affiliation and contact information. The responsible contact author should be marked clearly. The information must be posted first using the original research language first then repeated in the second language in its proper location.


The purpose of the abstract is to present a short informative presentation of the manuscript (not more than 250 words). It must start with introducing the work importance then follow it with its purpose, conducting method, main results, and conclusions or recommendations.

The most repeated faults of abstracts are mentioning too much detail, not reporting the main point of work importance, detailed methods description, ignoring key results and/or recommendations, or reporting points that need further work.

It should be noted that the abstract is the last written part of the manuscript. Thus, it should not contradict what is reported within the manuscript.

Translation of the abstract to the second language should be professionally conducted and identical.


Keywords are an important manuscript component in modern publishing. It is the first located item in search engines. This is why an author should select them carefully to obtain higher chances of being cited by others in future research work. This improves the author/s own citation index and the journal impact factor as well.

Keywords should not exceed six alphabetically arranged words and must reflect main issues of the research.

Keyword main problems are using general words that do not present the core subject of the research, using vague word, and not arranging words within each language.

When writing a second-language keyword, the author should not use first-language expressions; rather, a translation should be used.


The purpose of the introduction is to briefly present the information related to the current work to indicate its importance. It should hierarchy cover previous work and indicate the points that were not covered; thus presenting the knowledge gap that are targeted by the current work.

This important to the reviewer to make sure that the author/s deals with a point that requires further investigation to improve current knowledge. It also helps him decide the originality of the current research.

If the introduction ends without presenting the current work objective or presenting similar objectives that were shown earlier, then the reviewer might consider the current work “not original or repeated work” and may reject the manuscript.

Some researchers believe that changing the site of work or the samples would be enough to show its originality. This is not true despite the scientifically correct conducting of the research and it refers to a type of research called “parallel research”. High-ranking international journals normally will not receive such research work.

Within the introduction, the journal adopts the Harvard citation method (last name and year). If two authors share the reference, then the last name of the first author is followed by the last name of the second one followed by publishing year. In more than two authors’ citation, the first author last name is followed by et al. then the publishing year.

In Arabic language manuscripts, citation should be written using the original language of the used reference except when the reference is Arabic translated one. Such format should be applied in other sections such as results and discussion.

Footnotes must be minimal. If used, the option listed in Microsoft word program.

It is advised to minimize the use of unpublished data or personal interviews as the main source for the planning and formulating its assumptions particularly if there are no methods to detect the accuracy of such sources. If such sources are needed, then they are listed as footnotes and not in the references list.

The introduction should end with a statement that indicates the importance of the current work and a brief statement of its objective and scientific approach.

The most repeated faults in the introduction is detailed presentation of old information by citing too many references that handled the same issue that reported similar findings. This should be shortened by presenting few older research and concentrating on the most recent ones.

Another major fault of the introduction is citing work that is not related to the current topic to improve the author/s’ citation index.

However, the worst fault is plagiarism, which is an illegal action defined in the Oxford dictionary as “the practice of taking someone else's work or ideas and passing them off as one's own”. It is allowed only if the writer requests and obtains approval of the original author or copyright holder or if the text is not legally protected. In such case, the used text should be placed between ellipsis (“ ”) and report its source.

It should be understandable that plagiarism detection programs work by detecting the use of a consecutive set of words mentioned in other manuscripts and detecting the original source and the percentage of plagiarized words.

To avoid plagiarism, the author must summarize what he read with his own words, for example, the statement “ treatment with x material high dose increased flowering percentage of y disease by so % as reported by whoever(2020)” could be rewritten as “Whoever(2020) indicated that the flowering percentage declined due to y disease under law level of x material” 

It also should be known that plagiarism takes in account the own author use of his previous work and name it self-plagiarism. This type is not acceptable in many high ranked journals. 

Materials and methods:

This section presents the details of work conductance, data collection and statistical analysis used. It should clearly indicates the suitability of the scientific approach to the achieve the work objectives. In case of sampling procedure, the number of samples and methods of drawing samples should be indicated. When questionnaires are used the preparation and evaluation of the questions and testing before its application should be reported.

Detailed presentation of well documented methods should not be given as it will show up as plagiarism. Rather report such method reference. However, if the researcher modified such method, just indicate the modification details.

International abbreviations must be used rather than mentioning the detailed names of measuring units such as cm, mm, kg, % for centimeter, millimeter, kilogram, or percentage; respectively.  Metric measures are recommended. However if non-metric measure were used indicate the equivalent in metric units. This also applies to local measuring units. Common names of species must be followed by its scientific names.

A common mistake in this section is a detailed presentation of chemical analysis or statistical analysis method that will be marked as plagiarized items even if a reference is given, in such cases just report the method's name and reference.

Results and discussion:

This part present two components that might be separated into two section. Separation occurs when data are too much and need to be presented in one shot so it can be discussed later to be able to show the relationship of different data sectors.

Data should be presented using one method for each data, tables, graphs, figures before discussing it using scientific evidences to reach conclusions and recommendations.

Table and graph formats:

Tables must be numbered consecutively. Title is written above table. Table title should be informative. Footnotes might be used and placed below table. Tables must be prepared using table option in Microsoft word program. Pre-formatted tables resulted from analytical equipment program of picture format tables must not be used as it causes problems during printout publishing preparation process. Tables must be in portrait format with readable font size. Table must be placed as close as possible to the first time it was mentioned in the text. Tables should be always sited by its number.

When using figures and pictures, they both should be referred to as Figures. Their consecutive numbers and titles are placed below the figure. They should be placed as close as possible to the first time it was mentioned in the text. Tables should be always sited by its number. A key should be used in multiple line graphs to enable distinction of lines particularly if black and white copies are made for the manuscript. Close colors are not advised to use/

It is advise to use portrait format. Another separate copy of pictures should be sent later for high publication quality.

Main faults in this section include repeated presentation of the same date by different methods; i.e. wording, table and graphs. Some researchers only present data without explaining the reasons of variability or just report that this is similar to other researchers’ findings. Such approach leads the reviewer to decrease the level of originality of the work.

If the work listed a recommendation or more, it should emerge from its own results and be specific, and applicable. A major fault is ending the manuscript without suggesting specific areas that need future work.


The author/s might present a short section of conclusion especially if the results and discussion section was too long to emphasize his main findings. 


This section is used to appreciate the help of persons who are not listed as author during the conductance or preparation of manuscript. It also thank those entities who financed the work. 


The purpose of the reference list is to provide resource for the readers about the current topic. Thus, it should be written clearly to allow the reader to reach the original source of information. All references should be in English and those of languages other than English should be translated and inserted in their proper place in the list.

If a manuscript is written in Arabic language and all its references were Arabic references, a secondary list of references should be included containing a translation of the references according to the above mention examples. This list should be placed after the original Arabic list.

If the manuscript contains a mix of Arabic and English references, then the Arabic references are placed first followed by one list of original English references and translated Arabic references arranged alphabetically. 

Main fault is not to follow the journal reference guidelines, put incomplete information, and/or mismatching of citation and reference list information (such as names or years).

The list should be arranged alphabetically (not numerically) according to the first author last name. They should follow the following examples. If references are in different languages, the list starts with the manuscript original language references followed by the other language references.

The world list of scientific periodicals should be used if journal abbreviated names are used.

References from the internet must include the detailed web address that leads to a specific reference not the general web address of the site. Name of author, title, and retrieval date should be included. Retrieval date is the actual date in which the author retrieved the information. This is needed as some site archive its content and they will not be available unless they were requested from the site using this date.

CDs are not used as references unless they have EISSN that should be listed in the reference list.

If more than one reference is included for the same author, they should be arranged as follows. First, list the ones that re from him/her as a single author and arrange according to year. If several reference of the same author are in the same year list them as a, b, c etc. after the year.

When accompanied by other authors, arrange them after single author according to the first letter of the second author last name.


Internet reference

Fonseco, M. (2013). Most common reason for Journal rejections. Retrieved on 12- 12-2013 from:


Basiouni, G.F., Khalid, M., and Haresign, W. (1996). Effect of bovine follicular fluid treatment and progesterone priming on luteal function in GnRH-treated seasonally anoestrous ewes. Animal Science. 62(3): 443-450

Conferences and workshops

Barano, J.L.S., and Hammond, J.M. (1985). Studies of action of FSH or progesterone secretion by immature granulosa cells maintained in serum-free conditions. p. 345-350. In: D.O. Toft and R.J. Ryan (ed.) Proceedings 5th Ovarian Workshop, Dec 5th 1985. Champaign, IL-USA

Abstract references

Campbell, B.K., Scaramuzzi, R.J., and Webb, R. (1993). IGF-1 stimulates oestradiol production in sheep, both in vitro and in vivo. J. Reprod. Fert., Abstr., series number 12. Abstr. No 23 


Haresign, W. (1983). Sheep Production. Butterworths, London.

Chapter in book

Haresign, W., McLeod, B.J., and Webster, G.M. (1983). Endocrine control of reproduction in the ewe. p.353-379 .In: . Haresign, W. (ed.) Sheep Production. Butterworths, London. 

Master and Ph.D. Thesis

Al-Shihry, S.S. 1993. Optically active photochromic fulgides. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Wales, Cardiff, UK.

If a DOI is present, it should be listed for all types of references.

Handling of manuscripts at the journal:


A submitted manuscript is handled as follows:


  • The author must first read and apply the publication guidelines posted in the journal web site.
  • Two file should be sent to the journal e-mail, the manuscript (Microsoft word) and a signed declaration of responsibility (PDF format). The declaration states that the author/s read the publication guidelines and applied it to the manuscript, that the author/s are legally responsible for the contents of his manuscript and did not previously publish the manuscript or send it at the same time to the publication entity. The declaration also stated that the author/s shall make any correction proposed by the reviewers and/or the editors within the period indicated in the journal guidelines.
  • An editor from the author/s field of specialty shall revise the manuscript in a glance to make sure the manuscript idea is genuine and not a repeated parallel work. He/she shall also make sure that the author/s followed the journal guidelines and that plagiarism is within acceptable limit.
    • If any remarks are presents regarding the primary checkup by the editor, then the manuscript will be returned to the corresponding author with the remarks to correct it within the assigned period stated in the guidelines.
    • If the editor decided that the manuscript is in proper format, the corresponding author will be contacted to pay the administrational fees in the journal account and provide a copy of the evidence of payment.
  • Upon receiving the evidence of administrational fee payment, the manuscript is assigned a serial number that is sent to the corresponding author for future communication. The date of serial number assignment is considered the official receiving date of the manuscript.
  • A copy of the manuscript (without author/s) information is sent to two specialized reviewers accompanied by reviewing guidelines and decision form. The reviewers are informed that the period assigned for their decision is ten days started from the date they accepted conducting reviewing process. The manuscript shall not be sent to any reviewer who belongs to the same affiliation of the author/s, or who is known to have beneficiary relation with the research topic ( for example working in financed project on the same topic) to avoid conflict of interest.
  • Upon receiving the reviewers reports, the editor examines the reports and make his decision according to the following table:


case 1st reviewer 2nd reviewer Decision Process
1 Accepted Accepted Accepted for publishing  
2 Accepted Minor corrections Sent to author for corrections Once received from author, the editor make sure the needed corrections are done, if so acceptance is granted
3 Minor corrections Minor corrections Sent to author for corrections Once received from author, the editor make sure the needed corrections are done, if so acceptance is granted
4 Minor corrections Major corrections Sent to author for corrections Once received from author, the editor make sure the needed corrections are done then send the corrected manuscript to reviewers for final decision.
5 Major corrections Major corrections Sent to author for corrections Once received from author, the editor make sure the needed corrections are done then send the corrected manuscript to reviewers for final decision.
6 Accepted Major corrections Forward manuscript to third reviewer The third reviewer decision will state the status of the manuscript (accepted or rejected)
7 Accepted Not acceptable Forward manuscript to third reviewer The third reviewer decision will state the status of the manuscript (accepted or rejected)
8 Minor corrections Not acceptable Forward manuscript to third reviewer The third reviewer decision will state the status of the manuscript (accepted or rejected)
9 Major corrections Not acceptable Rejection of manuscript  
10 Not acceptable Not acceptable Rejection of manuscript  


  • Based on the reviewers’ decision, a letter of rejection shall be issued in cases number 9 and 10. Acceptance letter will be issued for case number 1.
  • In cased number 2, 3, 4, and 5 the author/s shall make their corrections of the manuscript based of the reviewers’ remarks within 10 days. The corrected manuscript shall be forwarded to the reviewers for their final decision within a period of 10 days.
  • In cases number 6,7, and 8 the third discriminatory reviewer must be informed that he is a discriminator as the first two reviewers did not agree in their decision regarding the manuscript.
  • If the reviewers’ final decision was in favor of scientific validity of the manuscript (10 days), the editor shall browse the final reviewed manuscript; he may add more editorial comments (non-scientific) then forward the manuscript to the technical producing employer (10 days). The prepared manuscript shall be forwarded then to the corresponding author in PDF format for his/her approval of the final printing form (10 days).
  • If the author/s has remarks regarding final format, such as names typing, order of authors, the editor should consider it before adding the DOI to the manuscript and issuing of acceptance letter.
  • Any step of the manuscript handling stages must not exceed ten days unless special conditions forced to add five more days. Thus the maximum period between official reception of manuscript and acceptance letter issuance is ninety days (10 reviewing, 10 author correction, 10 second reviewing after correction, 10 for discrimination reviewer, 10 authors correction, 10 editor reviewing and formatting,10 author approval, and 10 issue of acceptance letter).
  • If a reviewer declined to review the manuscript within the ten days span, he/she shall be contacted by a reminder and given five extra days to finish his review. However. If he/she did not respond to the massage, he/she should be informed that the journal withdraws the manuscript and forwarded it to another reviewer.
  • If the corresponding author declined to respond to the massages sent to him within the assigned period, the journal shall sent a reminder and gave him/her a five days period to respond otherwise the manuscript will be rejected. However, if he decline to respond within the extra period granted, then the journal shall close the manuscript folder with a statements that it is rejected for failure to respond to journal instructions within the assigned time. In such case, the author/s held responsible for the administration costs spent by the journal. 




  • American Society of Agronomy. 2022. Publication Handbook and Style Manual. Madison, WI, USA. Accessed on 8/10/2022, from:


  • ASAJ. (2022) Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences web page. Accessed on 10/8/2022 from:
  •  Fonseco, Marisha. 2013. Most common reason for Journal rejections. Accessed on 12- 12-2013. from: